Given the complete swill that's being published on Social Security on the net these days ("It's bankrupt! It's not bankrupt! It's going bankrupt! It'll turn you gay!"), if you really need a simple primer, you should start at the only reliable source there is -- the U.S. government's own Social Security Administration web site. It's not left wing, it's not right wing, it's the official government agency so you have no excuse to be stupefyingly ignorant about some of the basic facts.
As a start, I recommend the link "About Social Security's Future", where you can learn enough basic information about the current controversy to not sound like a total idiot when it comes up in conversation. Learn that:
- Yes, Virginia, there really is a Social Security trust fund.
- No, Social Security can't go "bankrupt".
- Yes, George Bush is a lying sack of monkey feces.
(OK, I made that last one up.) Anyway, you get the idea. Take a chance, and be the first on your block to actually know what you're talking about. That'll make you special, and I mean that in a good way.